Constitutional Convention Part 2: Who Really Won?

eagle

Image from the Owosso Times (Michigan), 1921. http://goo.gl/0WDKph

Download PDF

Overview

Adopted from: “Whose ‘More Perfect Union’?” Role Play from Zinn Education Project

Having convention experience, students should now be ready to examine the U.S. Constitution, keeping in mind the social perspective. This lesson provides questions to get students to think critically about their experiences as well as the Constitution.

Oregon Common Core State Standards

Language Arts Standards: 

  • ELA.RH.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
  • ELA.RH.6-8.3 Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history/social studies (e.g., how a bill becomes law, how interest rates are raised or lowered).
  • ELA.RH.6-8.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.
  • ELA.RH.6-8.5 Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).
  • Additional standards listed in PDF Download

Social Studies Standards:

  • Historical Knowledge 8.2. Evaluate continuity and change over the course of U.S. history by analyzing key people and the Constitutional Convention, the age of Jefferson, the Industrial Revolution, Westward Expansion, and the Civil War.
  • Historical Thinking 8.6. Use and interpret documents and other relevant primary and secondary sources pertaining to U.S. history from multiple perspectives.
  • Historical Thinking 8.7. Analyze evidence from multiple sources, including those with conflicting accounts about specific events in U.S. history.
  • Historical Thinking 8.8. Evaluate information from a variety of sources and perspectives.
  • Historical Thinking 8.9. Construct or evaluate a written historical argument demonstrating an understanding of primary and secondary sources.
  • Civics and Government 8.14. Explain rights and responsibilities of citizens.
  • Civics and Government 8.15. Contrast the impact of the Articles of Confederation as a form of government to the U.S. Constitution.
  • Civics and Government 8.18. Examine and analyze important U.S. documents, including (but not limited to) the Constitution, Bill of Rights, and 13th-15th
  • Civics and Government 8.21. Analyze important political and ethical values such as freedom, democracy, equality, and justice embodied in documents such as the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and the Bill of Rights.
  • Social Science Analysis 8.25. Critique data for point of view, historical context, distortion, or propaganda and relevance.
  • Social Science Analysis 8.26. Examine a controversial event, issue, or problem from more than one perspective.
  • Additional standards listed in PDF Download

Materials

  • Copy of the U.S. Constitution, one for each student
  • “Who Really Won?” activity sheet
  • Access to the Internet (optional)
  • Copies of the Virginia Plan (optional)

Key Vocabulary

Lesson

  • Provide background knowledge: Provide students with background information about the convention.
    • Founding Fathers: Allow students time to explore the delegates who attended the convention. Their biographies are available on the National Archives website and are organized by state. You may wish to discuss who the Founding Fathers were.
    • Virginia Plan: Read the Virginia Plan, the first draft of the Constitution. The convention initially gathered to amend the Articles of Confederation. However, while Virginia’s delegates were waiting for other states to arrive, James Madison (a delegate from Virginia) created the Virginia Plan, which included elements about separation of powers in government in addition to revisions for the Articles of Confederation.
  • Introduction: Students will read the Constitution to analyze. They will use the “Who Really Won?” activity sheet to interpret the Constitution and understand its weight on a specific issue.
  • Hand out questions: Hand out the “Who Really Won?” activity sheet for students to read.
    • You may assign students the handout as homework as a way to prepare thoughts and answers for an in-depth, in-class discussion, or to just brainstorm and reflect on the Constitution prior to in-class group or individual work.
  • Hand out the Constitution: Hand out a copy of the U.S. Constitution to each student.
    • As a class, become familiar with how the Constitution is organized.
    • You may wish to read the Constitution together as a class.
  • Discussion or debrief: Depending on which procedure you chose (either assigning the activity sheet as homework or as an in-class assignment), bring students together to debrief on the activity.
  • Some discussion or debrief questions to consider:
    • What did you find out that was the most interesting to you?
    • Do you agree with the Constitution? Do you disagree? Why?
    • We are presented with the idea that the Constitution did not represent the majority. So how and why was it approved?
    • From the key vocabulary from the Part 1 lesson plan, how did we define democracy? How does the Constitution represent democracy? How does it not?
    • In what ways does the Constitution empower “the people?” In what ways does it disempower them?

Extension Activity Ideas

  • Federalist Papers: Further investigation into the Constitution and its deeper meanings. Students will read about James Madison, “Father of the Constitution” and his ideologies, and delve deeper into the social conflict and its relationship with government.
    • A lesson plan called “Constitutional Convention Part 3” has been created for this extension activity idea.
  • Debate: Use the handout “Who Really Won?” to debate each question. Remind students to stay in character to argue their points. Take a vote at the end of each debate to see who has been persuaded onto the other side. Allow students to make rebuttals, objections, opening and closing statements, and ask questions.
Posted in Common Core: English Language Arts Grades 6-8, Common Core: Social Sciences Grades 6-8, K-12 Lesson Plans

Constitutional Convention Part 1: Role Play

Drawing of James Madison

Image from the Pittsburg Dispatch (Pennsylvania), 1889. http://goo.gl/TeJpzt

Download PDF

Overview

Adopted from: “Whose ‘More Perfect Union’?” Role Play from the Zinn Education Project

The U.S. Constitution is the highly respected document on which the United States was founded. James Madison created this document, and through much debate and compromise, a law of the land was written and enacted.

Treating the Constitution as a revered document elevates it above critique. This lesson gives students the opportunity to really reflect on and interact with the Constitution. Students will be asked to think critically about issues the Founding Fathers were confronted with and decide for themselves “Whose ‘More Perfect Union’?”

The following activities could align with Constitution Day to make the experience more real, either as a classroom activity or open forum for the school or families to watch and partake in.

Oregon Common Core State Standards

Language Arts Standards: 

  • ELA.RH.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
  • ELA.RH.6-8.3 Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history/social studies (e.g., how a bill becomes law, how interest rates are raised or lowered).
  • ELA.RH.6-8.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.
  • ELA.RH.6-8.5 Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).
  • Additional standards listed in PDF Download

Social Studies Standards: 

  • Historical Knowledge 8.2. Evaluate continuity and change over the course of United States history, by analyzing key people and constitutional convention, age of Jefferson, industrial revolution, westward expansion, Civil War.
  • Historical Thinking 8.6. Use and interpret documents and other relevant primary and secondary sources pertaining to U.S. History from multiple perspectives.
  • Historical Thinking 8.7. Analyze evidence from multiple sources including those with conflicting accounts about specific events in U.S. History.
  • Historical Thinking 8.8. Evaluate information from a variety of sources and perspectives.
  • Historical Thinking 8.9. Construct or evaluate a written historical argument demonstrating an understanding of primary and secondary sources.
  • Government 8.14. Explain rights and responsibilities of citizens.
  • Government 8.15. Contrast the impact of the Articles of Confederation as a form of government to the U.S. Constitution.
  • Government 8.18. Examine and analyze important United States documents, including (but not limited to) the Constitution, Bill of Rights, 13th-15th
  • Government 8.21. Analyze important political and ethical values such as freedom, democracy equality, and justice embodied in documents such as the Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights.
  • Social Science Analysis 8.25. Critique data for point of view, historical context, distortion, or propaganda and relevance.
  • Social Science Analysis 8.26. Examine a controversial event, issue, or problem from more than one perspective.
  • Additional standards listed in PDF Download

Materials

  • Copies of roles
  • Copies of the U.S. Constitution for each student
  • Construction paper for name cards
  • Tools to decorate name cards
  • Copies of “Constitutional Convention: Burning Issues” for each student
  • Parliamentary guidelines sheet, one for each group
  • Costumes (optional)
  • K-W-L chart (optional)
  • Vocabulary activity sheet (optional)
  • Materials to create set (optional)

Key Vocabulary

Lesson

  • Introduction: Engage students’ prior knowledge. You may wish to use a K-W-L chart (one is provided below), lead a discussion, or give students time to research.
  • Some discussion questions to consider:
    • What is the Constitution?
    • Why is the Constitution important?
    • How do the Constitution and Declaration of Independence differ?
    • Who wrote the Constitution?
    • What rights does it give us?
    • What rights does it not give us?

The main objective of the discussion is to emphasize to students that, theoretically, nothing can dispute constitutional law.

  • Describe role-play: Each student will be given a role to play—Slaves, Workers, Farmers, Plantation Owners, and Bankers.
    • Emphasize role-play etiquette—most importantly, staying in character, i.e. plantation owners did not fight to free slaves, and slaves did not fight to empower the plantation owners.
  • Activity preparation: Divide students into five groups. Give students a copy of their roles to read and research.
    • Have students create a biography for their characters, such as names, place of birth, family, friends, etc. Some research questions have been listed in the descriptions of each role.
    • Have students create name cards for their group and characters.
    • To elicit depth, students should write a short biography presentation so that the class gets a feeling for each character.
    • Give students time to discuss roles and how each is approaching it.
    • Monitor groups, raise questions, and disrupt contradictions.
  • Expectations: Hand out Parliamentary Guidelines to each group.
    • Read rules together and discuss, making sure that every student understands what is expected during the role-play.
    • These guidelines may be posted as well.
  • Pose questions and write-ups: Hand out Conventional Burning Issues activity sheet for students to discuss and answer in their groups.
    • The objective of the convention is for students to come up with at least one resolution to each issue and determine which ones are the most important and least important.
    • Give examples, such as “Be it resolved that all debts may be paid in kind…”
    • Give students an appropriate amount of time to discuss and form resolutions within their groups.
    • Monitor students during this time in order to raise questions and disrupt contradictions.
  • Role-play activity: Once students are finished creating resolutions, half of their group should leave to speak to other groups to negotiate allies. Traveling students may only talk to seated students. This keeps everyone participating in the activity.
    • Give students an appropriate amount of time to discuss alliances and negotiations.
    • Monitor groups, raise questions, and disrupt contradictions.
    • Remind students of the importance of staying in character for their roles, regardless of personal opinions.
    • Regroup students to discuss alliance proposals and rewrite resolutions.
    • Final note: Allow role-play to proceed as long as possible to obtain an optimal level of discussion and interaction.
  • Debrief: Bring students together to discuss their experiences playing their roles. These questions can be asked as part of a discussion or in written format.
  • Some debrief questions to consider:
    • What did you find realistic and unrealistic about our class convention?
    • What alliances were made? Would you expect similar alliances to take place? Why?
    • Was it easier for lower or higher socioeconomic groups to come together? Why?
    • Who had incompatible interests and could not find a compromise?
    • What groups wanted stronger state government? Who wanted the national government to have more power?
    • Who wanted the most and least power to the people? Why?
    • Create a speech to deliver to the class that represents your personal thoughts and emotions regarding the finalization of the class Constitutional Convention.

Extension Activity Ideas

  • Further U.S. Constitution investigation: Having had authentic convention experience, students will be ready to further investigate parts of the U.S. Constitution without losing the consideration of its social perspective. Students will read the Constitution and think about personal opinions, as well as make concluding statements about who won the convention.
    • A lesson plan called “Constitutional Convention Part 2” has been created for this extension activity idea.
  • Federalist Papers: Further investigation into the U.S. Constitution and its deeper meanings. Students will read about James Madison, “Father of the Constitution” and his ideologies, and delve deeper into the social conflict and its relationship with government.
    • A lesson plan called “Constitutional Convention Part 3” has been created for this extension activity idea.

Note: Role play materials, worksheets, and additional information can be found in PDF Download.

Posted in Common Core: English Language Arts Grades 6-8, Common Core: Social Sciences Grades 6-8, K-12 Lesson Plans

The Oregon Trail and Pioneer History

Text reads: "Old Oregon Trail rapidly becoming modern motor road."

Image from the Sunday Oregonian, 1922. http://goo.gl/FBhTRd

Download PDF

Overview

Every teacher likely has an abundance of resources about the Oregon Trail as well as the events that occurred regarding Oregon’s statehood. Historic Oregon Newspapers has a large collection of authentic and relevant content from this time period. These newspaper articles and photographs can be utilized for firsthand accounts of the pioneers’ experiences on the Oregon Trail, or during pioneer life in Oregon during the mid 1800s to the early 1900s.

Listed below are a variety of articles that can be accessed through the Historic Oregon Newspapers website related to Oregon’s rich history. This is not a complete list, but rather a working list of all the newspapers and articles that can be connected with the Oregon Trail. To conduct further research, go to our advanced search option, which allows you to narrow down the years, key words, and specific newspaper.

Oregon Common Core State Standards

Social Studies Standards:

  • Historical Knowledge 4.2: Explain how key individuals and events influenced the early growth and changes in Oregon.
  • Historical Thinking 4.5: Distinguish between fact and fiction in historical accounts by comparing documentary sources on historical figures and events with fictional characters and events in stories.
  • Historical Thinking 4.6: Create and evaluate timelines that show relationships among people, events, and movements in Oregon history.
  • Historical Thinking 4.7: Use primary and secondary sources to create or describe a narrative about events in Oregon history.
  • Geography 4.10: Compare and contrast varying patters of settlements in Oregon, past and present, and consider future trends.
  • Geography 4.12: Explain how people in Oregon have modified their environment and how the environment has influenced people’s lives.
  • Social Science Analysis 4.20: Describe the sequence of events in given current and historical accounts.

Links

The articles are organized chronologically.

“From Maine to Oregon: Early Days Traveling from Coast to Coast” From the Astoria Daily Morning Astorian, December 6, 1889.

  • Remembrances of R.S. Thurston’s transcontinental trip from Brunswick, ME to Oregon in 1844. Thurston later served as Oregon’s congressman.

“Today Celebrates Her Ninetieth Birthday” From Portland Morning Oregonian, February 28, 1905.

  • Recounts the 1852 pioneer experiences of Sophrona Gibson, a long-lived Oregon Trail veteran. With a photo of the birthday gal, this story is a good way to “put a face” on the pioneer experience (i.e. personalize it) for students.

“Early Days In Oregon: Policy of the Hudson Bay Company” From the Astoria Daily Morning Astorian, December 2, 1883.

  • Earliest mention of the ‘Oregon trail’ (by name) in the digitized newspapers. Details efforts by the British Hudson Bay Company to discourage American settlers from travelling overland to Oregon.

“Story of The Famous Old Oregon Trail” by Walter E. Meacham, serialized in The Ontario Argus in 5 weekly installments beginning April 6, 1922: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, and Part 5.

“Old Oregon Trail was Famous Route in Prairie Schooner Days” From Pendleton East Oregonian, September 22, 1921.

  • Lot Livermore recounts his experience on the Oregon Trail having moved from Marietta, Ohio to Pendleton, Oregon.

These stories relate to Oregonians’ initial efforts to commemorate and mark the original route of the Oregon Trail, beginning around 1900:

“The Oregon Trail: Project to Mark It With Monuments From Missouri to This State” From Pendleton East Oregonian, April 25, 1900.

  • Details the Oregon Historical Society’s first plans to commemorate the trail.

“Trip Over Oregon Trail,” From Portland Morning Oregonian, September 17, 1900.

  • Professor F. G. Young’s account of retracing the 600-mile journey in 1900.

“Great Fair in 1905: Oregon Historical Society Starts the Movement,” From Portland Sunday Oregonian, December 16, 1900.

  • Reports initial planning that would lead to the great Lewis & Clark World’s Exposition in Portland in 1905.

“Will Retrace The Old Oregon Trail,” From Portland Sunday Oregonian, September 17, 1905.

  • Story about Ezra Meeker, an original Oregon Pioneer of 1852, who plans to retrace the trail in his old age, installing commemorative markers along the route. Includes a map of the Oregon Trail from Missouri to the Northwest.

“Trail Taken Again” From Morning Oregonian, March 15, 1910.

  • Story about Ezra Meeker making his third trip across the Oregon Trail to make sure that all states are restoring their sections of the Oregon Trail and preserving the history of this trail.

“Move in Behalf of Oregon Train Intent of Daughters of Revolution” From The Sunday Oregonian, March 15, 1914.

  • The Daughters of Revolution fight to have the Oregon Trail marked because of its significance in Oregon history from George Washington’s army walking over it to Indian Chief, Nemacobin having crossed over it.

The remaining links are to stories that are perhaps only partially, or indirectly, concerned with the Oregon Trail. However, they present fascinating perspectives on other aspects of early pioneer history in Oregon:

“Early Local Government in Rhode Island and Oregon,” From Astoria Daily Morning Astorian, November 18, 1884.

  • Fascinating piece details Oregon’s remarkable early history of political organization, and compares it with similar developments during the ‘pioneer’ settlement of an Eastern state nearly 200 years earlier.

“Joaquin Miller Writes on Oregon for the Chicago Times,” From Jacksonville Oregon Sentinel, September 25, 1886.

  • Known in his day as the ‘Poet of the Sierras’ and the ‘Bard of Oregon,’ here Miller writes a prose overview in praise of our state. In this article he coins a nickname that would become popular: “The Emerald Land.” This piece was reprinted in many papers back east, helping to form Oregon’s image with the rest of the country.

“Beginnings of Oregon: Explorations and Early Settlement at the Mouth of The Columbia River,” From Portland Morning Oregonian, April 19, 1901.

  • With illustration, “Astoria As It Was In 1813.”

“One Hundred Years In Oregon,” From Portland Morning Oregonian, January 1, 1903.

  • Condensed (1 page) history of Oregon’s first Century of Anglo-American settlement and development. Well illustrated.

“Eastern Oregon Road-Building Programme Includes 814 Miles” From The Morning Oregonian, January 2, 1922.

  • Construction work on three major highways in Eastern Oregon: John Day Highway, Oregon Trail, and Dalles-California highway. The Oregon Trail being restored first in 1922. This article presents two hand drawn maps with a different vantage point of Oregon’s roadways and mountains.
Posted in Common Core: Social Science Grade 4, K-12 Lesson Plans

Lewis and Clark: The Voyage of Discovery

LewisAndClark

Image from the Morning Oregonian, 1902. http://goo.gl/cU1Sny

Download PDF

Overview

It has been said that every Oregon teacher has a lesson unit on Lewis & Clark that they personally cherish. We wouldn’t ask you to give it up! However, please be aware of all the related and authentic content available online on Historic Oregon Newspapers online.

An interesting fact that comes to light is that neither Lewis and Clark, nor their Voyage of Discovery, were always famous! Interest and awareness of the explorers had in fact waned throughout the 1800s and only truly revived around the turn of the 20th century. This is reflected in the digitized Historic Oregon Newspapers, where articles about the celebrated explorers are exceedingly rare prior to 1900. (One notable exception is the Willamette Farmer’s 1879 obituary notice for the last surviving member of the expedition.) Given that Lewis and Clark are almost universally recognized names throughout America today, this can be a valuable lesson in the ways that “History” is not a static thing, but something that grows, evolves, and changes over time.

Listed below are a variety of articles that can be accessed through the Historic Oregon Newspapers website related to the Lewis and Clark Expedition. This is not a complete list, but rather a working list of all the newspapers and articles that can be connected with Lewis and Clark. To conduct further research, go to our advanced search option, which allows you to narrow down the years, key words, and specific newspaper. 

Oregon Common Core State Standards

Social Studies Standards:

  • Historical Knowledge 4.2: Explain how key individuals and events influenced the early growth and changes in Oregon.
  • Historical Thinking 4.6: Create and evaluate timelines that show relationships among people, events, and movements in Oregon history.
  • Historical Thinking 4.7: Use primary and secondary sources to create or describe a narrative about events in Oregon history.
  • Geography 4.10: Compare and contrast varying patterns of settlements in Oregon, past and present, and consider future trends.
  • Geography 4.12: Explain how people in Oregon have modified their environment and how the environment has influenced people’s lives.

Links

Newspaper articles:

The articles are organized chronologically.

“Frozen To Death.” From Salem Willamette Farmer, March 7, 1879.

  • Obituary report of Tom Lewis, an African American who was the last surviving member of the Lewis & Clark Expedition.

“Benefactors Of Oregon.” From Portland Morning Oregonian, May 20, 1901.

  • Shorter article perfect for an in-class reading/discussion. Illustrated with portraits of the two explorers.

“As To The Descendants Of Lewis And Clark.” From Portland Sunday Oregonian, April 2, 1905. And “Colonel William Hancock Clark,” From Portland Morning Oregonian, August 26, 1901.

  • By the turn of the 20th century, many Americans were claiming to be descended from the famous duo—some fraudulently. Claims of ancestry among the famous and historical can be an interesting topic of class discussion, as we still see this going on today!

“First Across The Continent: Effect of the Lewis and Clark Expedition Upon the Westward Expansion of the United States.” From Portland Morning Oregonian, January 1, 1902.

  • This is a full-page, front-page article, well illustrated with portraits of the explorers, plus a large map of “The Oregon Country as defined by the Treaty of 1846.”

“The Conquest = Tale of Lewis and Clark.” From Portland Sunday Oregonian, November 2, 1902.

  • Eva Emery Dye of Oregon wrote one of the first, comprehensive books about Lewis and Clark, “The Conquest.” This article reviews the book, with extensive excerpts, and also relates some of the challenges Dye faced in researching her subjects.

“What Lewis And Clark Did.” From Portland Morning Oregonian, January 1, 1903.

  • Essay about the long-term effects of the Voyage of Discovery on the history of Oregon and the United States. Features a portrait photo gallery of many prominent Oregonians of the early, Territorial period.

“Talks Lewis and Clark.” From Portland Morning Oregonian, February 9, 1903.

  • Major William Hancock Clark, the grandson of Captain William Clark, discusses his ancestor’s accomplishments during the lead-up to the Lewis & Clark Exposition of 1905. Interesting to note here, that the Voyage of Discovery had been nearly forgotten in many quarters of the East at this time!

“Monument to Sergeant Floyd: First Man in the Lewis and Clark Company Who Lost His Life.” From The Sunday Oregonian, May 24, 1903.

  • This article describes the life of Sergeant Floyd, the first member in the Lewis and Clark expedition to perish, who will have a monument erected in his honor.

 

“Explorer Lies In Lonely Grave: Captain Meriwether Lewis Lies Buried In Heart Of Dismal Oak Forest In Tennessee.” From Portland Sunday Oregonian, April 16, 1905.

  • This article describes the grave site of the famous explorer, Captain Lewis, lying in shambles, in a dense forest with no one having visited, though his deeds have been renowned worldwide.

Photographs:

Local as well as national interest in Lewis & Clark was heightened during the lead-up to Portland’s “Lewis and Clark Centennial and American Pacific Exposition” of 1905. View the Exposition Banner here: http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn83025138/1904-05-24/ed-1/seq-12/.

  • The class may discuss the meaning of the symbolism included on the flag.

“The Lewis and Clark Fair As Seen From Willamette Height.” From The Morning Oregonian, January 2, 1905 and From The Sunday Oregonian, March 19, 1905.

  • Images describe the Lewis and Clark Fair in Portland.

Other:

Listed below are other subsections that you may wish to explore that relate to Lewis & Clark.

“The Lewis and Clark Trail” From The Plaindealer, June 05, 1905.

  • This is a poem by Aldon Harness describing the ravels of Lewis and Clark. Harnees has published a variety of his poems in a book entitled “Lew and Clark: A Souvenir Book.”

 

 

Posted in Common Core: Social Science Grade 4, K-12 Lesson Plans

Playing with Comics

comics

Comic from the Oregon City Courier, 1907. http://goo.gl/gxNQKz

Download PDF

Overview

In addition to the articles and advertisement changes in print media over the years, the style and humor of the comics section in print media have undergone significant changes. Students will use their critical thinking skills to analyze the changes that have occurred in the comics sections of newspapers. Using primary source documents available on the Historic Oregon Newspapers website, students will compare and contrast comics created in the early 1900s with comics created in the present day.

Oregon Common Core State Standards

Language Arts Standards:

  • ELA.RL.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • ELA.RL.4.3 Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).
  • ELA.SL.4.4 Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

Materials

Key Vocabulary

  • Comic/comic strip

Lesson

  • Introduce topic: Tell the students that they will be working with comic strips that were created during the early 1900s.
  • Brainstorm: Create a bubble map anchor chart for students to refer throughout the lesson.
  • Some discussion questions to consider:
    • Is there a difference between comics and comic strips?
    • What are some examples of comics?
    • What is your definition of comics?
    • What are some features of comics?
  • Introduce definition: Write down the definition next to the bubble map. Merriam-Webster defines the word “comic strip” as “a series of cartoon drawings that tell a story or part of a story.”
    • You may want to take this time to go over some key vocabulary from the comic strips or text features of comic strips.
  • Activity: Hand out copies of comics (more may be found on the Historic Oregon Newspapers website using the advanced search option). Students should browse the newspaper articles and write down their findings. A list of links to the comics are provided below.
    • Determine whether students will be working in pairs or groups; independent work is not recommended. Students may share an activity sheet.
    • Provide students with the compare and contrast activity sheet. One is provided in PDF Download. Remind students that they will share their findings with the class.
  • Debrief: Discuss what students have noticed when browsing through the comics.
  • Some debrief questions to consider:
    • While browsing through the website, what did you find interesting?
    • What are some major differences between comics created then and now?
    • What are the similarities?
    • What did you like about the comics?
    • What didn’t you like about the comics?
    • Which one do you like better, and why?

Extension Activity Ideas

Activities can be modified several different ways, depending on the grade level and focus of study. Listed are activity ideas that can be adapted and extended to and for any grade level.

  • Compare and Contrast: Instead of providing students with comic strips from the present day, have students bring in their favorite comic books to compare and contrast. This activity is also a nice segue into newspaper text features, and to finding similarities and differences in text features from the 1900s to the present day.
  • Create Comic Book: After analyzing and working with the comic strips from the 1900s, have students create their own comic strip or comic book. Work through the whole writing process from the brainstorm stage to the proofreading stage to the illustrating stage. Publish comic strips or comic book to the class library.

Old Doc Yak Comic Strips

Just like the ever popular Garfield and Calvin and Hobbs, the Old Doc Yak comics were a popular series created and printed daily in newspapers.

Please note: Most comics can be found on the Historic Oregon Newspapers website using the advanced search option; enter the keyword “comic” and browse the results. These results may be narrowed by year, publication, and keyword.

Posted in Common Core: English Language Arts Grade 4, K-12 Lesson Plans

Oregon’s First Resource Industry: Fur Trade and Beaver Ecology in the Beaver State

Image of a beaver in its natural habitat.

Image from the Sunday Oregonian, 1904. http://goo.gl/mptlfC

Download PDF

Overview

The purpose of this lesson is to provide students with a discussion transition into lessons or units in the economics, history, and ecology of Oregon. These discussions focus on the beaver fur trade and its effect on the beaver population and beaver ecosystems. There are many extension activity ideas that can be implemented from this discussion.

Oregon Common Core State Standards

Language Arts Standards:

  • ELA.SL.4.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

Social Studies Standards:

  • Historical Knowledge 4.2: Explain how key individuals and events influenced the early growth and changes in Oregon.
  • Geography 4.11: Identify conflicts involving the use of land, natural resources, economy, competition for scarce resources, different political views, boundary disputes, and cultural differences within Oregon and between different geographical areas.

Materials

Key Vocabulary

  • Beaver
  • State symbol
  • Decline
  • Fur trapping
  • Supply
  • Demand

Lesson

Extension Activity Ideas

Activities can be modified several different ways, depending on the grade level and focus of study. Listed are resources that can be adapted and extended to and for any grade level.

  • Science Unit: This discussion can lead into a science unit about beavers, both their importance and history in Oregon. Some useful links are listed below.
  • Social Studies Unit: This discussion can lead into a social studies unit involving some government topics about beavers and their transformation into the state’s symbol, in addition to the history of Oregon becoming “The Beaver State.”
  • Economics Unit: This discussion can lead into an economics unit about the history of beaver fur in Oregon and the decline of the beaver population.

Resources

Background

The first of Oregon’s natural resources to be recognized and extracted by Euro-Americans was fur. In the early decades of the nineteenth century, furs were highly valuable commodities of international trade. Early explorers of the Northwest, such as Robert Gray and Lewis and Clark, reported that the region’s many waterways supported an abundant population of sea otter and beaver. When people back east heard about this, they knew there was the potential for great profits to be made. So, the first permanent Euro-American settlements in Oregon were trading outposts established by large and powerful fur trading companies that were based in London and New York.

Initially, traders in Oregon obtained their furs by bartering with Native Americans. As the enormous value of the Northwest’s fur resources quickly became apparent to them, corporations such as Hudson’s Bay Company and Pacific Fur Company decided to start employing their own workforce, and professional trappers were brought in from Canada, the American states, and islands of the South Seas. The increasing number of trappers and competition between English and American companies quickly began to deplete the populations of the fur-bearing animals. In fact, by 1824, the Hudson’s Bay Company was pursuing a strategy of intentionally “trapping out” and eliminating beaver from entire sections of the Oregon interior in order to keep rival businesses from moving into those areas. In little more than a decade, the beaver had nearly disappeared from what would later come to be known as “The Beaver State.”

 

 

Posted in Common Core: English Language Arts Grade 4, Common Core: Social Science Grade 4, K-12 Lesson Plans

Oregon’s First People: Native American Barter and Exchange

FirstPeople

Image from the East Oregonian: E.O., 1914. http://goo.gl/qJGdvR

Download PDF

Overview

This lesson begins with an activity about bartering, which is the basic act of trading goods without using money. During the time of the barter system, Native American tribes would trade goods that were thought of as equal in value, ranging from baskets to beads to fish to clothing. The items that were bartered depended highly upon the area the particular tribe lived in because they would create unique goods from the resources found in their territory. This bartering activity provides an opportunity for students to research and create a presentation about the Native American tribes of Oregon and the types of goods bartered along with experiencing the barter system.

Oregon Common Core State Standards

Language Arts Standards: 

  • ELA.W.4.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
  • ELA.W.4.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
  • ELA.W.4.5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
  • ELA.W.4.6 With some guidance and support from adults, use technology—including the Internet—to produce and publish writing, as well as interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting.
  • ELA.W.4.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
  • ELA.SL.4.4 Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.
  • ELA.SL.4.5 Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.

Social Studies Standards:

  • Historical Knowledge 4.1: Identify and describe historic Native American groups that lived in Oregon prior to contact with Europeans and at the time of early European exploration, including ways these groups adapted to and interacted with the physical environment.
  • Geography 4.12: Explain how people in Oregon have modified their environment and how the environment has influenced people’s lives.
  • Civics and Govt. 4.15: Describe and evaluate how historical Oregon governments affected groups within the state (citizens, foreigners, women, class systems, minority groups, tribes).
  • Economics 4.17: Analyze different buying choices and their opportunity costs while demonstrating the difference between needs and wants.

Materials

Key Vocabulary

  • Barter
  • Trade
  • Tribes
  • Customs
  • Traditions
  • Resources

Lesson

  • Introduction: Discuss with students the concept of bartering, which is the basic act of trading goods without using money.
  • Activity: “Barter System Rendezvous”
    • Students will be playing a game where they will be trading for keeps. Emphasize this rule so that students think deeply about their decisions.
    • Have students share their items with the class, then place the items on their desk.
    • Once every student has shared their item, have the whole class walk around and observe the items that other students have brought.
    • Go over the rules of bartering. Students are allowed to make multiple trades. Students do not need to barter if they feel the other item isn’t worth the same amount as theirs.
    • Model the proper and respectful way to barter with another student by initiating the first exchange.
    • Give students 30 minutes for the activity.
  • Discussion: Once the activity is over, bring students together to have a discussion about what they experienced during the activity.
  • Some discussion questions to consider:
    • How many students were able to trade their item for the item they wanted most?
    • How many didn’t make a trade at all? Why?
    • Was there anyone who traded more than once to get the item of his or her choice?
    • Say you saw something you really wanted most, and the other person said no to the trade. What did you do in order to trade for that item?

Extension Activity Ideas

Activities can be modified several different ways, depending on the grade level and focus of study. Listed are activity ideas that can be adapted and extended to and for any grade level.

  • Jigsaw Activity/Art: Students research the Historic Oregon Newspapers website to find photographs of items that were actually used to barter. Each group or partnership specializes in one Oregon tribe to research bartering items unique to each of that tribe. Students will then put together a short presentation of their findings for the class. Additionally, students may conduct longer research to create a more formal presentation (i.e. using PowerPoint, poster board, etc.) to share with the class. To further this activity, students can use the research they have conducted to create replicas of these items.
    • Pictures during this era may be found through the advanced search option on the Historic Oregon Newspapers website. Type in “pictures” in any of the search options to pull up pictures. This advanced search option is customizable in that keywords such as “Siletz,” along with the specific year, can narrow down the results.
  • Research Project: Group students in partnerships or small groups to research one of the nine federally recognized tribes in Oregon: Burns Paiute Tribe; Confederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw; Coquille Indian Tribe; Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians; Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community; Klamath Tribes; Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians; Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation; and Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation. Additionally, students may research a smaller band within these larger tribes to provide a variety of information presented. Oregon Blue Book provides some great resources about these smaller bands, and the greater tribe.
    • Some presentation mediums include: PowerPoint presentation, models of tribal life, clothing, etc., picture book, fairy tale, play, etc.
    • Some topics to research include: natural resources, region, traditions, clothing, food, arts, etc.

Resources

Background About Trading Among Indians

Because Oregon is such a geographically diverse state, Native peoples living in different regions had access to different types of natural resources. Every region of the state had some of the things people considered necessary for life, but no one region had all of the things. Therefore, tribal groups living in different regions would trade with one another in order to get those goods that could not easily be attained from their local environment.

For example, peoples of the Coastal region (such as the Chinook, Siletz, and Tillamook) would trade seashells and baskets made of woven cedar bark with inhabitants of the interior Great Basin (such as Bannock and Shoshone), who could supply bison hides and the obsidian used to make arrowheads.

So, even before the arrival of the first Euro-American settlers, Oregon already had a well-developed trade economy based on a system of barter. The barter system is a method of buying and selling goods without the use of money. There are no “prices” in a barter system–goods and services are exchanged directly for other goods and services, and the two parties in the transaction decide on the relative values of the trade goods at the time they are making the trade.

Background About Indians

Before the coming of American and European settlers, Oregon had been inhabited for more than 14,000 years by Native Americans. In fact, the oldest known human remains on the North American continent were discovered in recent years outside Paisley, Oregon (MSNBC story about the discovery: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26819601/ns/technology_and_science-science/). DNA evidence indicates these people originated in northern regions of Asia and that they are the direct forebears of the Indian people who still live in Oregon today: they are known to archaeologists as Paleo-Indians (Paleo is a prefix that means “ancient”). Paleo-Indians crossed over a land bridge that existed between Siberia and Alaska during the last Ice Age, when sea levels were much lower than the present day. These people were nomadic hunters who lived in small bands that followed the herds of large prehistoric mammals known as megafauna. Many archaeologists believe that significant human impact on the environment of North America actually begins here because they theorize that over-hunting by these Ice Age people helped lead to the extinction of such animals as the mammoth, wooly rhinoceros, and giant ground sloth. As the big game species disappeared and the environment warmed with the retreat of the polar ice caps, groups of Paleo-Indians began to settle more permanently in various areas, adapting diverse cultures and lifestyles based on new food-gathering strategies (fishing, hunting smaller game, gathering wild plants).

Newspaper Articles to Support the Lesson:

Posted in Common Core: English Language Arts Grade 4, Common Core: Social Science Grade 4, K-12 Lesson Plans

John McLoughlin: Context Clues

Photo of John McLoughlin. Caption reads: "Dr. John McLoughlin, Friend of the pioneer and founder of Oregon City."

Image from the Oregon City Enterprise, 1906. http://goo.gl/D8e9Fv

Download PDF

Overview

The pragmatics of language have changed considerably throughout history. The purpose of this lesson is not only to expose students to the changes that have occurred in language and word use, but also to give students the opportunity to practice decoding difficult texts. This lesson focuses on context clues and how they can help us understand the meaning of words we do not understand. This lesson can be coupled within an Oregon history unit, since John McLoughlin was such a vital figure and driving force affecting how Oregon came to be.

Oregon Common Core State Standards

Language Arts Standards:

  • ELA.RI.4.2 Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.
  • ELA.RI.4.4 Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to grade 4 topic or subject area.
  • ELA.W.4.1 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
  • ELA.W.4.8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.
  • ELA.W.4.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Social Studies Standards:

  • Historical Knowledge 4.2: Explain how key individuals and events influenced the early growth and changes in Oregon.
  • Historical Thinking 4.7: Use primary and secondary sources to create or describe a narrative about events in Oregon history.

Materials

Key Vocabulary

  • Recourse
  • Mendicants
  • Unsalable
  • Arduous
  • Prescience
  • Supineness
  • Destitute

Please note: These vocabulary words are tentative. Feel free to adapt to the needs of your students.

Lesson

  • Introduction: Remind students of their studies in Oregon history.
    • Tell students the main focus of today’s lesson will be John McLoughlin, one of the crucial figures impacting the founding of Oregon. McLoughlin was a doctor and superintendent for the Hudson’s Bay Company, which helped many people survive their journey across America into Oregon by providing them with necessary supplies such as shelter, food, and clothing, and helping them become acclimated to Oregon.
  • Read aloud: Read the text together chorally, teaching-directed, or popcorn style.
  • Discussion: Facilitate a discussion of the students’ first reading of the text, eventually leading students to offer up vocabulary words that were confusing.
  • Some discussion questions to consider:
    • What are some thoughts you have about this article?
    • How do you feel about what happened to John McLoughlin for helping the settlers?
    • What are some things that may have confused you?
    • What do you think about John McLoughlin?
    • How do you think you would feel traveling through America?
    • Were there any vocabulary words that you were stuck on? (Write the vocabulary words that students offer on the board. Then write five pre-chosen vocabulary words on the board, and ask the class to choose five more. Or choose ten vocabulary words for the students.)
  • Introduce activity: Make sure the mandatory words are circled or outlined for students to refer to when doing the activity.
    • Each student should have a context clues activity sheet (in PDF Download).
    • Students will be circling the vocabulary word with the writing tool, and then highlighting the context clue that helps them understand what the vocabulary word means. Then the students will be finding the dictionary definitions for each word.
    • Model finding the context clue and the procedures for the activity sheet.
    • Remind students that to find the context clue, they must read before and after the vocabulary word.
  • Activity: Release students into partnerships, or decide to perform as an independent activity
    • Some vocabulary word ideas are listed above.
  • Reread article: Once students are finished with the context clues activity, reread the article together as a class, in partnerships, or in table groups.
  • Debrief: When finished rereading the text, call the class together to debrief.
  • Some debrief questions to consider:
    • What was the most interesting word you learned? Why?
    • What was your favorite word? Why?
    • Do you think context clues are useful?
    • Did you understand the article because of the context clues?
    • What was the most difficult word to find? Why?

Extension Activity Ideas

Activities can be modified several different ways, depending on the grade level and focus of study. Listed are activity ideas that can be adapted and extended to and for any grade level.

  • Narrative/journal writing: After students have finished rereading the article, have them write in their journals or write a short summary about something interesting they learned about John McLoughlin. This can be done as a way to decompress the information that was presented in the article, or in a more formal style with brainstorming. A brainstorm graphic organizer is available in PDF Download.
Posted in Common Core: English Language Arts Grade 4, Common Core: Social Science Grade 4, K-12 Lesson Plans

Intro to Speleology: Three Great Caves of Oregon

Headline reads: "Oregon Caves a wonderland for Tourists"

Headline from the Grants Pass Daily Courier, 1919. http://goo.gl/yfokod

Download PDF

Overview

Caves are a great way to engage young learners in geology and earth sciences. The study of caves is known as speleology, and those who explore caves are called speleologists. Oregon boasts a number of large and impressive caves. Furthermore, because Oregon is so geologically diverse, there are excellent examples of different types of caves, formed by different geological forces. This lesson will concentrate on three major Oregon cave systems: the Oregon Caves of Josephine County, the Lava River Cave of Deschutes County, and the Sea Lion Caves of Lane County.

Oregon Common Core State Standards

Language Arts Standards:

  • ELA.RI.4.4 Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.
  • ELA.W.4.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
  • ELA.W.4.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
  • ELA.SL.4.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

Social Studies Standards:

  • Geography 4.11: Identify conflicts involving the use of land, natural resources, economy, competition for scarce resources, different political views, boundary disputes, and cultural differences within Oregon and between different geographical areas.

Materials

  • Historic Oregon Newspapers website
  • Access to the Internet
  • Computers
  • Cave types self-discovery activity sheet (all activity sheets in PDF Download)
  • Information gathering graphic organizer
  • Predictions and observations activity sheet
  • Whole group experiment observation sheet
  • Science experiment materials
    • 1 box of sugar cubes
    • Toothpicks
    • Clear plastic or glass tubs: 1 per partnership or table group
    • Spray bottles filled with water: 1 per partnership or table group
    • Modeling clay: 2 lbs. for each partnership or table group
    • Limestone rocks
    • A few non-carbonate rocks, various types
    • Water
    • Vinegar
    • Pipettes or eyedroppers
    • 3 clear jars 

Key Vocabulary

  • Speleology
  • Caverns
  • Dissolve
  • Limestone
  • Acid
  • Sulfuric acid
  • Carbonic acid
  • Solution
  • Fissures
  • Non-soluble

Lesson

  • Introduction: Introduce the different types of caves, emphasizing the difference as a result of the various ways that caves are formed.
    • Have students fill out cave types self-discovery sheet (in PDF Download)
    • Lead into class discussion about the cave types
  • Some discussion questions to consider:
    • What are the earth forces that form this type of cave?
    • What kinds of rock are they usually formed in?
    • What are some typical shapes and features of this type of cave?
    • Where are some places in the world where major examples of this type of cave can be found?
  • Activity: Have students browse the following websites to identify Oregon’s caves. A graphic organizer to help students organize their information is provided in PDF Download.

Extension Activity Ideas

Activities can be modified several different ways, depending on the grade level and focus of study. Listed are activity ideas that can be adapted and extended to and for any grade level.

  • Field Trip: To provide students with even more realia, organize a field trip to one of Oregon’s famous caves. Have students make observations, and write reflections about their experiences.
Posted in Common Core: English Language Arts Grade 4, Common Core: Social Science Grade 4, K-12 Lesson Plans

Douglas Fir Tree: Figurative Language

Photo of logs at the mill, with Douglas fir trees in the background

Image from the Sunday Oregonian, 1900. http://goo.gl/Ylh9WE

Download PDF

Overview

One of the major industries in Oregon is lumber. Oregon is one of the greenest states in the United States. Its history reflects a time when there was an excess of trees; as settlers realized the usefulness of lumber, over-cutting and negative lumber practices diminished the amount of trees in Oregon. This article provides an interesting account of the famous Douglas fir tree before Oregon transformed into a lumber-producing state. This lesson provides students with a direct connection to the state as well as its history. Additionally, students are exposed to figurative language. This lesson can be used within a poetry unit or a social studies unit, as it provides students with primary, relevant documents from Oregon’s history.

Oregon Common Core State Standards

Language Arts Standards:

  • ELA.L.4.5 Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  • ELA.L.4.5a Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context.
  • ELS.W.4.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
  • ELA.W.4.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
  • ELA.W.4.5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
  • ELA.W.4.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Materials

Key Vocabulary

  • Metaphor
  • Simile
  • Figurative language
  • Descriptive word
  • Felling
  • Personification

Add any additional vocabulary terms from the article that may seem difficult to understand or are interesting.

Lesson

  • Introduction: Using figurative language to not only engage audience, but also keep this level of engagement.
    • Some discussion questions to consider:
      • What kinds of books do you enjoy reading?
      • Why do you think you enjoy reading those books?
      • What does the author do to make it so interesting?
      • Which books do you not enjoy reading?
      • Why do you think you don’t enjoy reading those kinds of books?
    • Introduce figurative language: A writing style that uses a variety of descriptive words and tools, such as similes, metaphors, and personification, to depict a vivid image in the audience’s mind. In this form of writing, objects are given human qualities, an object is described in exaggeration, or events are described with action words of natural sounds.
      • Use this discussion time to remind students about prior lessons on writing styles.
      • Remind students that this kind of writing usually occurs in literature and fiction.
      • Create an anchor chart that students may refer to throughout the unit.
    • Read aloud: Read the article to the class as a whole group.
      • The semantics during this time period are different from what students usually read, thus repeated readings of the article is necessary. Giving students this pre-exposure will benefit their future comprehension during the activity.
    • Activity: The objective of this lesson is for students to read the article and find examples of figurative language usage. Model the activity before having students work with partners or in groups.
      • Optional: Provide students with a graphic organizer to write down the examples they find. One is provided in PDF Download.
      • Reread article: Reread the article with the whole class, stopping at various examples of figurative language. At this time, use highlighting as a tool to assist student comprehension. Students may highlight the specific type of figurative language used and label it so that they could refer to it later.
      • Some examples of places to stop are: the type of adjectives used, personification “laugh at Echo, sleeping in her hidden caves,” etc.
      • Once several examples have been found, have students work with partners or in groups to analyze the article.
    • Debrief: Gather students to discuss their findings.
    • Some debrief questions to consider:
      • What are some examples of figurative language that you have found?
      • Do you think this made the article interesting?
      • If we read the article without this example, would it still be interesting?
      • Would you change it to something else?
      • Did you like this article?
      • Why did you like or dislike this article?

Extension Activity Ideas

Activities can be modified several different ways, depending on the grade level and focus of study. Listed are activity ideas that can be adapted and extended to and for any grade level.

  • Write a Narrative: Students should write about the same topic as the article (Douglas fir trees) or a topic that is Oregon-related. They should be given a graphic organizer to help create their pieces; one is provided below. This narrative can be in the form of an article, poem, essay, etc. Give students the option to write using whatever medium they prefer. Once the narratives are written, have students perform their pieces for the whole class.
  • Photograph Analysis: Print out larger copies of photographs that are presented in the article. Using these copies, discuss aspects of the photographs that could be different or similar with the type of photography that is done presently.
    • Some discussion questions to consider:
      • What does this photograph tell me?
      • Why did the photographer take this picture?
      • Do you think this photograph is fiction or nonfiction? How do you know, and why?
      • Is it a fair and accurate portrait of the past?
  • Discussion questions, and lesson ideas adapted from “Picture This: Using Photographs to Study the Past” from Education Station.
Posted in Common Core: English Language Arts Grade 4, K-12 Lesson Plans
Skip to toolbar